The first people to live in what is now Indiana were the Paleoindians, who arrived about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago, entered around 10,000 BC after glaciers melted at the end of the last Ice Age. These people arrived in North America by crossing the land bridge to Asia. Indiana got its name from the American Indian tribes that lived there when the Europeans arrived. Like other states in the Midwest, Indiana has a very long archaeological record.
Native peoples lived in the Midwest for more than 15,000 years, covering many important cultural changes. In the 1000s, just like in neighboring Kentucky, Indiana was home to the Mississippian and Fort Ancient cultures. The most famous local nations were Chickasaw, Lenape, Wyandot, Cherokee and Shawnee. As the territory of Indiana grew in population and development, it was divided in 1805 and again in 1809 until, reduced to its current size and boundaries, it retained the name of Indiana and was admitted to the Union in 1816 as the nineteenth state.
The formal use of the word Indiana dates back to 1768, when a commercial company based in Philadelphia gave its land claim in the current state of West Virginia the name Indiana in honor of its previous owners, the Iroquois. During this time, many migrants who arrived in Indiana encountered violence against blacks and were forced to relocate due to Indiana's numerous villages at dusk. Article XIII of the Indiana Constitution of 1851, which sought to exclude African Americans from settling in the state, was invalidated when the Indiana Supreme Court ruled in 1866 that it violated the newly passed Thirteenth Amendment to the U. The ambitious development program of Indiana's founders took place when Indiana became the fourth largest state in terms of population, as measured by the 1860 census.
With the founding in 1906 of the steel town of Gary, halfway between the iron ore deposits of Minnesota's Mesabi Range, the coal deposits of central Appalachia and the limestone resources of southern Indiana and Illinois and the subsequent development of automobile manufacturing in South Bend, Indiana, completed its transition from an agricultural to an industrial base. Later, ownership of the claim was transferred to the Indiana Land Company, the first recorded use of the word Indiana. While northern Indiana had been covered by glaciers, southern Indiana remained unchanged by the advance of ice, leaving plants and animals that could sustain human communities. At the end of the American Revolution, in 1783, Great Britain ceded Indiana to the United States, and in 1816 Indiana became the nineteenth state.