Native Americans lived on the land that became Indiana for more than 10,000 years before settlers from other places moved here. The Miami, Potawatomi, Lenape, Wabash, Kaskaskia, Sauk, Fox, Piankashaw and Eel rivers are some of the tribes that lived here when European settlers arrived. The History of Human Activity in Indiana, USA. UU.
State in the Midwest, began with migratory Native American tribes that inhabited Indiana as early as 8000 BC. C. The tribes succeeded each other in the domain for several thousand years and reached their peak of development during the period of Mississippian culture. The region entered recorded history in the 1670s, when the first Europeans arrived in Indiana and claimed the territory for the Kingdom of France.
After France ruled for a century (with few settlements in this area), it was defeated by Great Britain in the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War) and ceded its territory east of the Mississippi River. Britain maintained the land for more than twenty years, until after its defeat in the American War of Independence, it ceded the entire Trans-Allegheny region, including what is now Indiana, to the newly formed United States. The government divided the Trans-Allegheny region into several new territories. The largest of these was the Northwest Territory, which the U.S.
The Congress was later subdivided into several smaller territories. In 1800, Indiana became the first of these newly established territories. As the territory of Indiana grew in population and development, it was divided in 1805 and again in 1809 until, reduced to its current size and boundaries, it retained the name of Indiana and was admitted to the Union in 1816 as the nineteenth state. The newly established state government launched an ambitious plan to transform Indiana from a segment of the border into a developed, well-populated and prosperous state.
State founders initiated an internal improvement program that led to the construction of state-funded roads, canals, railroads and public schools. Despite the noble objectives of the project, the waste of expenditures ruined the state's credit. By 1841, the state was close to bankruptcy and was forced to liquidate most of its public works. Acting under its new Constitution of 1851, the state government enacted important financial reforms, demanded that most public office be filled by election rather than appointment, and significantly weakened the governor's power.
Indiana's ambitious founders development program came to fruition when Indiana became the fourth largest state in terms of population, as measured by the 1860 census. Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the Union during the American Civil War. Indiana was the first Western state to mobilize for war, and its soldiers participated in almost every confrontation during the war. After the Civil War, Indiana remained politically important, as it became a critical state in the U.S.
He helped decide control of the presidency for three decades. During Indiana's gas boom in the late 19th century, industry began to develop rapidly in the state. The state's Golden Age of Literature began in the same period, increasing its cultural influence. In the early 20th century, Indiana became a strong manufacturing state and attracted numerous immigrants and internal migrants to its industries.
He experienced setbacks during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The construction of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, the expansion of the automotive industry, urban development and two wars contributed to the state's industrial growth. During the second half of the 20th century, Indiana became a leader in the pharmaceutical industry due to innovations from companies like Eli Lilly. After the end of the last glacial period, some twenty thousand years ago, Indiana's topography was dominated by fir and pine forests and was home to mastodons, caribou and saber-toothed cats.
While northern Indiana had been covered by glaciers, southern Indiana remained unchanged by the advance of ice, leaving plants and animals that could sustain human communities. Indiana's earliest known inhabitants were Paleo-Indians. There is evidence that humans were in Indiana as early as the Archaic stage (8000—6000 BC). Clovis Nomadic Culture Hunting Grounds Found in Indiana.
Carbon dating of artifacts found in Wyandotte Caves in southern Indiana shows that humans extracted flint there from 2000 BC. These nomads ate quantities of freshwater mussels from local streams, as evidenced by their shell mounds found throughout southern Indiana. The Early Woodland period in Indiana occurred between 1000 BC and 200 AD, and produced the Adena culture. He domesticated wild pumpkins and made pottery, which were great cultural advances on the Clovis culture.
Natives built burial mounds; one of this type has been dated as the oldest earthwork in Anderson's Mounds State Park. It is generally considered that the era of late forests began around 600 A.D. And it lasted until the arrival of the Europeans in Indiana. It was a period of rapid cultural change.
One of the new developments that has not yet been explained was the introduction of masonry, demonstrated by the construction of large stone fortresses, many of which face the Ohio River. Romantic legend attributed the forts to the Welsh Indians, who supposedly arrived centuries before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Caribbean; however, archaeologists and other scholars have found no evidence of that theory and believe that cultural development was engendered by Mississippi culture. Evidence suggests that after the Hopewell collapse, Indiana had a low population until the emergence of Fort Ancient and Mississippian culture around 900 AD. The Ohio River Valley was densely populated by Mississippians between 1100 and 1450 AD.
Its settlements, such as those at Hopewell, were known for their ceremonial earthmoving mounds. Some of these remain visible near the Ohio River. Mississippian mounds were built on a larger scale than Hopewell built mounds. The Mississippian agrarian culture was the first to grow corn in the region.
People also developed bow and arrow and copper by working during this period of time. Mississippian society was complex, dense and highly developed; Mississippi's largest city of Cahokia (in Illinois) had up to 30,000 inhabitants. They had a class society with certain specialized groups such as artisans. The elite held related political and religious positions.
Their cities were typically located near rivers. Representing its cosmology, the central developments were dominated by a large central mound, several smaller mounds, and a large open plaza. Later wooden palisades were built around the complex, apparently for defensive purposes. The remains of an important settlement known as Angel Mounds lie east of present-day Evansville.
Mississippian houses were generally square in shape, with plastered walls and thatched roofs. For reasons that are not yet clear, Mississippians disappeared in the mid-15th century, some 200 years before Europeans first entered what would become modern Indiana. Mississippian Culture Marked High Point of Native Development in Indiana. It was during this period that American Bison began a periodic walk from east to west through Indiana, crossing the Ohio Falls and the Wabash River near present-day Vincennes.
These herds became important to the civilizations of southern Indiana and created a well-established Buffalo Trace, which was later used by European-American pioneers who moved west. During the Great Migration, black people who arrived in Indiana between 1910 and 1920 often settled in the central or northern parts of states. New opportunities were available due to industrialization and the war economy, and rumors of new opportunities were attractive. Indiana has a long history of women's activism in social movements, including the women's suffrage movement.
After the problems of the Indians and the war of 1812, the territory of Indiana was ready to become a state. A leading figure on Indiana's path to statehood was Jonathan Jennings. Jennings was born in New Jersey and raised in Pennsylvania. Like many other settlers in the Indiana Territory, Jennings came to this area floating down the Ohio River in a flatboat.
Jennings, while in Indiana Territory, practiced law, sold land and published a newspaper. Thousands of years before Christopher Columbus stumbled across the Americas, which opened the way to North America for Europeans, an ancient race of people lived in North America. These people were the ancestors of the Indians. Along with the native peoples who lived around the Great Lakes area, large animals roamed.
One of these prehistoric animals was the mammoth (sometimes called the woolly mammoth), which looked like a modern elephant. There were also giant bison that were very similar to today's bison. In addition, there were big wolves, saber-toothed tigers, bears and beavers. The formal use of the word Indiana dates back to 1768, when a commercial company based in Philadelphia gave its land claim in the current state of West Virginia the name Indiana in honor of its previous owners, the Iroquois.
Later, ownership of the claim was transferred to Indiana Land Company, the first recorded use of the word Indiana. The whole of northern Indiana was crushed by two separate glaciers; for that reason, the topography of southern Indiana is like a rug that folds under a door that opens. Indiana was not the scene of decisive battles, but there were occasional incursions on the Indiana side of the Ohio River. In June 1541, Hernando DeSoto's army crossed the Ohio River into Indiana on June 8, 1541 at a point today Evansville, Indiana.
Indiana's ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment was not followed by an immediate change to Indiana's Constitution. With the founding in 1906 of the steel town of Gary halfway between the iron ore deposits of Minnesota's Mesabi Range, the coal deposits of central Appalachia and the limestone resources of southern Indiana and Illinois and the subsequent development of automobile manufacturing in South Bend, Indiana completed its transition from an agricultural to an industrial base. During this time, many migrants who arrived in Indiana encountered violence against blacks and were forced to relocate due to Indiana's numerous cities at dusk. Much of Indiana's history can only be derived from fossils and artifacts, and that's where Indiana's history begins.
Slavery in Indiana was prohibited, however, this law did not apply to slave owners who lived in Indiana before the constitution came into force. Article XIII of the Indiana Constitution of 1851, which sought to exclude African Americans from settling in the state, was invalidated when the Indiana Supreme Court ruled in 1866 that it violated the newly approved Thirteenth Amendment to the U. . .