Ohio, in 1803, was the first state formed from the territory. Indiana, in 1816, was the second state formed from the Northwest Territory. The formation and advancement of the Territory of Indiana was a necessity for the ultimate goal of statehood. Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the Union during the American Civil War.
Indiana was the first Western state to mobilize for war, and its soldiers participated in almost every confrontation during the war. After the Civil War, Indiana remained politically important, as it became a critical state in the U.S. UU. He helped decide control of the presidency for three decades.
The name Indiana means Land of the Indians, or simply Land of the Indians. It is also derived from Indiana's territorial history. In, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and called the western section Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a portion of this territorial land became the geographical area of the new state.
The first inhabitants of what is now Indiana were the Paleoindians, who arrived around 8000 BC, after the melting of glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large animals, such as mastodons. They created stone tools made of chert by chipping, crushing and peeling. The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture.
People developed new tools and techniques for cooking food, an important step in civilization. These new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various notch shapes. They made crushed stone tools such as stone axes, woodworking tools, and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, earthmoving mounds and garbage dumps were built, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent.
The Archaic period ended around 1500 BC, although some archaic peoples lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period began around 1500 BC, when new cultural attributes appeared. People created pottery and pottery and expanded their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group called the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, with log graves under mounds of dirt.
In the middle of the Woodland period, the people of Hopewell began to develop long-term trade in goods. Near the end of the stage, people developed a highly productive crop and adaptation of agriculture, cultivating crops such as corn and pumpkin. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of the European meeting spoke different languages of the Algonquian family.
They included Shawnee, Miami and Illini. Refugee tribes from the eastern regions, including those from Delaware, who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys, later joined forces. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend on the St. He returned the following year to get to know the region.
French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to trade fur with Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami in Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River.
In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post in Vincennes. French-Canadian settlers, who had left the previous post due to hostilities, returned in greater numbers. Within a few years, British settlers arrived from the East and fought Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between French and British settlers occurred throughout the 1750s as a result.
The Native American tribes of Indiana sided with French Canadians during the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War). With the British victory in 1763, the French were forced to cede to the British crown all their land in North America, east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the colonies. Southern Indiana is characterized by rugged, mountainous terrain and valleys, which contrast with much of the state. Here, the bedrock is exposed on the surface.
Due to Indiana's prevalent limestone, the area has many caves, caverns, and quarries. Indiana is one of the 13 U.S. States that are divided into more than one time zone. Indiana time zones have fluctuated over the past century.
Today, most of the state observes Eastern Time; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time. Indiana is home to several current and former military installations. The largest of these is the Crane Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, approximately 25 miles southwest of Bloomington, which is the third largest naval facility in the world, comprising approximately 108 square miles of territory. Previously, Indiana housed two large military installations; Grissom Air Force Base, near Peru (realigned to an Air Force Reserve facility in 199) and Fort Benjamin Harrison, near Indianapolis, now closed, although the Department of Defense continues to operate a large financial center there (Defense Finance and Accounting Service).
Indiana was home to two founding members of the National Football League teams, the Hammond Pros and the Muncie Flyers. Another early NFL franchise, the Evansville Crimson Giants, spent two seasons in the league before retiring. The table below shows Indiana's professional sports teams. The teams in italics are in the main professional leagues.
Indiana has had great sporting success at the college level. In men's basketball, the Indiana Hoosiers have won five NCAA national championships and 22 Big Ten Conference championships. The Purdue Boilermakers were selected as national champions in 1932 before the tournament was created, and have won 23 Big Ten championships. The Boilermakers together with Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won a national women's basketball championship.
In college football, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won 11 national consensus championships, as well as the Rose Bowl Game, Cotton Bowl Classic, Orange Bowl and Sugar Bowl. Meanwhile, the Purdue Boilermakers have won 10 Big Ten championships and won the Rose Bowl and the Peach Bowl. Missouri Valley Football Conference Southland Bowling League (women's bowling) Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the old arbitrary system of road numbers and names and (among other things) makes it much easier to identify the sources of calls made to the 9-1-1 system. Such systems are easier to implement in the northern and central parts of the state, flattened by glaciers.
Rural counties in the southern third of the state are less likely to have grids and are more likely to rely on unsystematic road names (for example, Crawford, Harrison, Perry, Scott, and Washington counties). After the problems of the Indians and the war of 1812, the territory of Indiana was ready to become a state. A leading figure on Indiana's path to statehood was Jonathan Jennings. Jennings was born in New Jersey and raised in Pennsylvania.
Like many other settlers in the Indiana Territory, Jennings came to this area floating down the Ohio River in a flatboat. Jennings, while in Indiana Territory, practiced law, sold land and published a newspaper. Even though laws and regulations were passed to regulate land ownership within the Northwest Territory, a major problem still existed. The Indians now claimed that the land was theirs.
Ohio Valley tribes began attacking settlers who moved to the Ohio Valley and the Northwest Territory. Learn more about the mythical conflict between the Argives and the Trojans. Like other states in the Midwest, Indiana has a very long archaeological record. Native peoples lived in the Midwest for more than 15,000 years, covering many different important cultural changes.
In the 1000s, just like in neighboring Kentucky, Indiana was home to the Mississippian and Fort Ancient cultures. The most famous local nations were Chickasaw, Lenape, Wyandot, Cherokee and Shawnee. During the Golden Age, Indiana Became a Massive Industrial State. Indiana's 41-mile Lake Michigan shoreline is, even today, one of the world's largest industrial centers, producing iron, steel and petroleum products.
The industry in Indiana played an important role in the growth of the American automotive industry. The region suffered like the rest of the country during the Great Depression, but the industry established in Indiana led the state to significant gains after World War II. Hoosiers, as they are enshrined in their college basketball team, are big fans of being Hoosiers. It's their official demon, and it's in their state nickname.
The only problem is that no one knows what exactly a Hoosieris is. The origin of the word is a mystery that scholars have been trying to solve for more than a century. Some popular theories include that it comes from the name of a famous black preacher, Reverend Black Harry Hosier, and that it was customary to say Who's Here? when did the guests arrive (they became Hoosier with a rural Indiana accent). State poet laureate James Whitcomb Riley jokingly claimed that it came from the number of fights (and bites) among Indiana men, prompting the regular Whoseear question? A Couple of States Vying for the Title of Mother of Presidents, but Indiana Makes the Most Unique Claim as Mother of Vice Presidents.
Has the state produced a disproportionate number of vice presidents? six, more than any other state except New York. Only two candidates for vice president of Indiana's major parties have lost, being on the ballots for William Jennings, Bryan and Winfield Hancock. Gimbel dealer; astronaut Virgil Grissom; actor and bandleader Phil Harris; statesman John Milton Hay; James R. Hoffa labor leader; Michael Jackson singer; Buck Jones actor; Alfred C.
Kinsey zoologist and sexologist; David Letterman, TV host and comedian; actress Carole Lombard; actress Shelley Long; lead actress Marjorie; tenor James McCracken; actor Steve McQueen; poet Joaquin Miller; playwright for Paul Osborn; composer for Cole Porter; journalist for Ernest Taylor Pyle; J. Former vice president of Danforth Quayle; poet of James Whitcomb Riley; football coach of Knute Rockne; composer of Ned Rorem; comedian of Red Skelton; mystery writer Rex Stout; author of Booth Tarkington; dancer and choreographer of Twyla Tharp; actor of Forrest Tucker; Harold C. Author; Jessamyn West novelist; lawyer for Wendell Willkie; inventor of Wilbur Wright. The territory of Indiana increased in 1816 with the addition of a strip of land that established the northern boundary between the territories of Indiana and Michigan and was reduced by ceding the territory of the upper peninsula to the territory of Michigan.
Indiana's ambitious founders development program came to fruition when Indiana became the fourth largest state in terms of population, as measured by the 1860 census. The governor of Indiana is the chief executive of the state and has the authority to administer government as set out in the Indiana Constitution. During this time, many migrants who arrived in Indiana encountered violence against blacks and were forced to relocate due to Indiana's numerous cities at dusk. While Indiana has committed to increasing the use of renewable resources such as wind, hydro, biomass or solar energy, progress has been very slow, mainly due to the continued abundance of coal in southern Indiana.
Later, ownership of the claim was transferred to Indiana Land Company, the first recorded use of the word Indiana. The formal use of the word Indiana dates back to 1768, when a commercial company based in Philadelphia gave its land claim in the current state of West Virginia the name Indiana in honor of its previous owners, the Iroquois. The other three independent state universities are Vincennes University (founded in 1801 by the Indiana Territory), Ball State University (191) and Southern Indiana University (1965 as ISU — Evansville). Slavery in Indiana was prohibited, however, this law did not apply to slave owners who lived in Indiana before the constitution came into force.
Article XIII of the Indiana Constitution of 1851, which sought to exclude African Americans from settling in the state, was invalidated when the Indiana Supreme Court ruled in 1866 that it violated the newly approved Thirteenth Amendment to the U. The Indiana Territory was organized on May 7, 1800, from the western part of the Northwest Territory; it included all of present-day Illinois, almost all of Indiana and Wisconsin, the western part of the upper peninsula of Michigan, and northeastern Minnesota. As the territory of Indiana grew in population and development, it was divided in 1805 and again in 1809 until, reduced to its current size and boundaries, it retained the name of Indiana and was admitted to the Union in 1816 as the nineteenth state. While northern Indiana had been covered by glaciers, southern Indiana remained unchanged by the advance of ice, leaving plants and animals that could sustain human communities.
The largest educational institution is Indiana University, whose flagship campus was endorsed as Indiana Seminary in 1820. Northwest Indiana has several sand ridges and dunes, some reaching nearly 200 feet in height; most of them are in Indiana Dunes National Park. Indiana was the first Western state to mobilize for the United States in the war, and Indiana soldiers participated in all of the major clashes of the war. .