Indianapolis, city, seat (182) of Marion County and capital of Indiana, USA. UU. It is located on the White River, at its confluence with Fall Creek, near the center of the state. Indianapolis is located in the central part of Indiana.
It is the capital of Indiana and the twelfth largest city in the United States. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area that dates back to 10,000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware renounced their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana state government.
The city was laid out by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile (2.6 km) grid along the White River. The completion of National and Michigan highways and the arrival of the railroad later consolidated the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historic links to transportation: Crossroads of America and Railroad City. Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor.
The Central Indiana Regional Transportation Authority (CIRTA) is a quasi-governmental agency that organizes regional car and van groups and operates three public workforce connectors from Indianapolis to employment centers in Plainfield and Whitestown. Other private and non-profit healthcare networks with a presence in the city include Ascension (St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital); Franciscan Health (Franciscan Health Indianapolis); and Community Health Network (Community Hospital East, Community Hospital North and Community Hospital South). The name Indiana means Land of the Indians, or simply Land of the Indians.
It is also derived from Indiana's territorial history. In, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and called the western section Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a portion of this territorial land became the geographical area of the new state. The first inhabitants of what is now Indiana were the Paleoindians, who arrived around 8000 BC, after the melting of glaciers at the end of the Ice Age.
Divided into small groups, Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted large animals, such as mastodons. They created stone tools made of chert by chipping, crushing and peeling. The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. People developed new tools and techniques for cooking food, an important step in civilization.
These new tools included different types of spear points and knives, with various notch shapes. They made crushed stone tools such as stone axes, woodworking tools, and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, earthmoving mounds and garbage dumps were built, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent. The Archaic period ended around 1500 BC, although some archaic peoples lived until 700 BC.
The Woodland period began around 1500 BC, when new cultural attributes appeared. People created pottery and pottery and expanded their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group called the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, with log graves under mounds of dirt. In the middle of the Woodland period, the people of Hopewell began to develop long-term trade in goods.
Near the end of the stage, people developed a highly productive crop and adaptation of agriculture, cultivating crops such as corn and pumpkin. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of the European meeting spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included Shawnee, Miami and Illini.
Refugee tribes from the eastern regions, including those from Delaware, who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys, later joined forces. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend on the St. He returned the following year to get to know the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to trade fur with Native Americans.
By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami in Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post in Vincennes.
French-Canadian settlers, who had left the previous post due to hostilities, returned in greater numbers. Within a few years, British settlers arrived from the East and fought Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between French and British settlers occurred throughout the 1750s as a result. The Native American tribes of Indiana sided with French Canadians during the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War).
With the British victory in 1763, the French were forced to cede to the British crown all their land in North America, east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the colonies. Southern Indiana is characterized by rugged, mountainous terrain and valleys, which contrast with much of the state. Here, the bedrock is exposed on the surface. Due to Indiana's prevalent limestone, the area has many caves, caverns, and quarries.
Indiana is one of the 13 U.S. States that are divided into more than one time zone. Indiana time zones have fluctuated over the past century. Today, most of the state observes Eastern Time; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time.
Indiana is home to several current and former military installations. The largest of these is the Crane Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, approximately 25 miles southwest of Bloomington, which is the third largest naval facility in the world, comprising approximately 108 square miles of territory. Previously, Indiana housed two large military installations; Grissom Air Force Base, near Peru (realigned to an Air Force Reserve facility in 199) and Fort Benjamin Harrison, near Indianapolis, now closed, although the Department of Defense continues to operate a large financial center there (Defense Finance and Accounting Service). Indiana was home to two founding members of the National Football League teams, the Hammond Pros and the Muncie Flyers.
Another early NFL franchise, the Evansville Crimson Giants, spent two seasons in the league before retiring. The table below shows Indiana's professional sports teams. The teams in italics are in the main professional leagues. Indiana has had great sporting success at the college level.
In men's basketball, the Indiana Hoosiers have won five NCAA national championships and 22 Big Ten Conference championships. The Purdue Boilermakers were selected as national champions in 1932 before the tournament was created, and have won 23 Big Ten championships. The Boilermakers together with Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won a national women's basketball championship. In college football, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won 11 national consensus championships, as well as the Rose Bowl Game, Cotton Bowl Classic, Orange Bowl and Sugar Bowl.
Meanwhile, the Purdue Boilermakers have won 10 Big Ten championships and won the Rose Bowl and the Peach Bowl. Missouri Valley Football Conference Southland Bowling League (women's bowling) Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the old arbitrary system of road numbers and names and (among other things) makes it a lot easier to identify the sources of calls placed in the 9-1-1 system. Such systems are easier to implement in the northern and central parts of the state, flattened by glaciers. Rural counties in the southern third of the state are less likely to have grids and are more likely to rely on unsystematic road names (for example, Crawford, Harrison, Perry, Scott, and Washington counties).
Indiana was the first Western state to mobilize for the United States in the war, and Indiana soldiers participated in all of the major clashes of the war. The governor of Indiana is the chief executive of the state and has the authority to administer government as set out in the Indiana Constitution. Rachel Justis, Managing Editor, Indiana Business Research Center, Kelley Business School, Indiana University. Northwest Indiana has several sand ridges and dunes, some reaching nearly 200 feet in height; most of them are in Indiana Dunes National Park.
Two museums and several memorials in the city commemorate the armed forces or conflict, including the Colonel Eli Lilly Civil War Museum and the Indiana World War Memorial Military Museum in the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza. A publication from the Indiana Business Research Center at the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University. The largest educational institution is Indiana University, whose flagship campus was endorsed as Indiana Seminary in 1820. InContext is an award-winning publication of the Indiana Business Research Center at the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University.
Indianapolis is also a center for academic research in medicine and health sciences, home to institutions such as the Indiana Bioscience Research Institute, the Indiana University School of Medicine, the College of Nursing and the School of Dentistry; the Marian University School of Osteopathic Medicine; and the American College of Sports Medicine. Later, ownership of the claim was transferred to Indiana Land Company, the first recorded use of the word Indiana. On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital, appointing Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham to inspect and design a city plan for Indianapolis. Two state-supported residential schools located in the city are the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired and the Indiana School for the Deaf.
While Indiana has committed to increasing the use of renewable resources such as wind, hydro, biomass or solar energy, progress has been very slow, mainly due to the continued abundance of coal in southern Indiana. The other three independent state universities are Vincennes University (founded in 1801 by the Indiana Territory), Ball State University (191) and Southern Indiana University (1965 as ISU — Evansville). Most of Indianapolis is within Indiana's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat André Carson, while North Fifth is part of Indiana's 5th congressional district, represented by Republican Victoria Spartz. .